Fact Sheet

13° 15.4´ N, 123° 41.1´ E
Albay Province, The Philippines
300 km southeast of Manila

Physical Features
Elevation: 2.46 km.
Base diameter: 20 km.
Base circumference: 62.8 km (reckoned from 10-km radius).
Adjacent towns: Camalig, Malilipot, and Santo Domingo.
Area: 314.1 km2 (estimated from 62.8 km base circumference).
Type: Stratovolcano.
Adjacent volcanic edifice: Mt. Masaraga, Mt. Malinao, Lignon Hill and Balong Goriá Hill.

Geological Features
Tectonic setting: Bicol Volcanic Chain.
Rock type: Basalt to Olivine-bearing Pyroxene Andesite.

Volcanic Activity
First recorded eruption: 1616.
Number of eruptions: 49, between 1616 and 2010.
Most recent eruptions: 2009, 2006, 2001, 2000, 1993, 1984, 1978, 1968, 1947, and 1938.
Strombolian eruption: 1978, 1984 first phase; 1993 second phase.
Vulcanian eruption: 1968 first phase,1984 second phase. Plinian eruption: 1814.

Precursors to Eruptions:
1. Increase in seismicity level
2. Ground tilt due to magma intrusion.
3. Change in color of steam emission from white to gray due to entrained ash
4. Increase in the volume of steam emission
5. Crater glow due to presence of magma at or near the crater.
6. Rumbling sounds due to gas explosions, wall fracturing, landslides

Volcanic Hazards
Type of Hazards: Lava flows, pyroclastic flows, lahars, and rock fragments (tephra).
Permanent Danger Zone: 6 km radius from the summit.

Monitoring Activity
Volcano Observatory: Lignon Hill Observatory, 12 km SSE of the summit (123° 43.56´ E, 13° 09.64´ N).
Monitoring Methods: Seismic monitoring, ground deformation, visual observations, sulfur dioxide emission rate, and water well monitoring.

It is estimated that the overall known death toll from Mayon activity, during and between eruptions, is between 4,000 and 5,000 casualties in rounded figures (approximately 4,200 and 4,700). About 1,200 casualties are from the 1814 eruption (most from pyroclastic surge), and about 400 from the 1897 eruption (most from pyroclastic flows). In addition, the destructive lahars that happened after the eruptions of 1875 and 2006 together produced some 2,500-3,000 casualties.